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Chapter 9 Learning Objectives:

After studying this material you should be able to answer/address the following:

1.      Give an example of energy transfer from one form to another.

2.      Give an example of how a specific material gets recycled from one Rx to another.

3.      What is the specific mechanism (associated with ATP) that drives all cellular work?

4.      What is the starting molecule for cellular respiration?

5.      What determines which pathway pyruvate will take?

6.      What are the differences between cellular respiration and fermentation?

7.      C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O + Energy is an example of a REDOX reaction.  Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.  What is being oxidized?  What is being reduced?  Explain how each process occurs.

8.      How does the First Law of Thermodynamics apply to REDOX reactions?

9.      What is an acronym that will help you remember which element is an electron donor and which element is an electron acceptor in a REDOX Rx? (feel free to make up your own)

10.  What role does NAD+ play during cellular respiration?  What is it’s reduced form?  Why is the reduction of NAD+ an important event?

11.  What is embedded in the cristae?  What is significant about the order they’re embedded?

12.  Compare/contrast substrate and oxidative phosphorylation.  Which happens when?  How much ATP is produced?

13.  What are the 3 major stages of cellular respiration?

14.  What early process will occur w/ or w/o O2?  What happens during that process?

15.  What are the first 5 steps of glycolysis referred to as?  Why?

16.  What are the second 5 steps of glycolysis referred to as?  Why?

17.  What must happen to pyruvate before it enters the Kreb’s cycle?

18.  Summarize the 8 stages of the Krebs cycle – why is it important to end up with what you start with?  What is that molecule?  How many turns/glucose?

19.  What is chemiosmosis?

20.  What is the role of NADH and FADH2?

21.  What type of phosphorylation involves that relay of electrons from food to the ETC, what molecules are involved, and what gets produced?

22.  Why is it important for the cristae to be folded?

23.  What important embedded protein uses the exergonic flow of H+ to power oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to synthesize ATP?

24.  What is the point of the Krebs Cycle?  What must be generated during this cycle to allow the ETC to work?

25.  When are the proteins embedded within the cristae reduced?  Oxidized?

26.  What generates the proton gradient?

27.  What must H+ do in order for ATP to be generated?

28.  What type of phosphorylation produces the most ATP?

29.  How much ATP is generated via aerobic cellular respiration?

30.  Can other macromolecules feed into cellular respiration?

31.  What are two types of fermentation?  What are the end products of each type?

32.  What industries directly rely on each type of fermentation?

33.  What is a facultative anaerobe?  How does it prefer to live?  What interesting adaptation does it have to allow it to live in extreme environments? 

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