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General Woodland Ecology:


Another name for a woodland area is a temperate deciduous forest, (abbreviated TDF).

The structure and growth forms of Minnesota Woodland can include:

CANOPY: A tree stratum, 60 -100 feet high, dominated regionally by various combinations of the following trees; Oak, Maple, Beech, Chestnut, Hickory, Elm, Basswood or linden, Walnut, and Sweet gum. 

SUBCANOPY: A small tree or sapling layer, with not only younger specimens of the tall trees with species limited to this layer such as (in Virginia) Allegheny serviceberry or shadbush, sourwood, dogwood, and redbud.

SHRUB: A shrub layer often with members of the heath family such as rhododendron, azaleas, mountain laurel, and huckleberries.

HERB: An herb layer of perennial forbs that bloom primarily in early spring.

LITTER LAYER: A ground layer of lichens, clubmosses, and true mosses. Lichens and mosses also grow on the trunks of trees. Includes the leaf litter on the woodland floor.  

Common woodland species


“Temperate Broadleaf Deciduous Forest” Created by SLW; October 13, 1996




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Last Updated -July 28, 2016

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Melanie Waite-Altringer or Joan McKearnan or Terry Teppen